Albert Einstein, the German Physicist is considered to be one of the greatest physicists of all times. He was born in Ulm, Germany on March 14,1879. He spent his childhood in Munich and moved to Switzerland when he was 15.
In the year 1905, Einstein published three significant papers. In the paper titled "On the Theory of Brownian Motion", he published a proof of the atomistic nature of matter. This theory of Brownian motion was confirmed experimentally a few years later.
In his second paper titled "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies", Einstein gave the special theory of relativity. This theory included a new look at the conventional ideas of space and time, and the famous mass energy equivalence principle.
In the third paper titled "On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light", Einstein explained the photoelectric effect using Planck's idea of quantization of energy in radiation. The classical theory of radiation was unable to explain this effect.
Einstein recieved the Nobel Prize in 1921 for the explanation of the photoelectric effect and for his services to theoretical physics.
Einstein also created the General Theory of Relativity - the modern theory of gravitation. He introduced the idea of stimulated emission which is crucial for the working of the laser. Later in his life, Einstein also worked on Cosmology.