Arthur Holly Compton was born on September 10, 1892 in Ohio.
He became a professor at Washington university in 1920 and at the University of Chicago in 1923.
Compton discovered the effect known after him as the Compton effect in 1922 while investigating X-rays. ("The spectrum of Scattered X-rays", Physical Review, 1923). He also gave the theoretical explanation for this effect. ("A Quantum Theory of the Scattering of X-rays by Light Elements", Physical Review, 1923)
He was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 1927 together with C.T.R. Wilson.